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Description:

Built in 2008 in under a year for MAS Holdings, which is one of Sri Lanka's largest apparel manufacturers and supplier to Victoria's Secret and Marks and Spencer. Located about 60km outside Colombo, features of the construction are: the use of a re-usable steel framework and timber flooring on the upper floors, solar PV panels, walls and roads built using cement-stabilised soil with low embedded energy, rainwater harvesting, and anaerobic treatment system for waste water.

ENERGY
Thermal roof load, the largest contributor to heat gain and indoor discomfort in the tropics, is controlled by a combination of green roofs, photovoltaic roofs, and cool roofs. Green roofs cover 1,757 square meters of the building. They are installed on concrete decks over shortspan spaces in the administrative wing. Covered with turf and plants, the high thermal mass of this roof absorbs heat without transmitting it into the building. The cool roof is a lightweight metal roof assembly over the longspan production halls. The white metal, with a solar reflectivity index of 79, The photovoltaic roof covers 200 square meters of the building with solar reflects nearly eighty percent of the solar energy that reaches the roof. This system not only prevents thermal gain, it transforms the solar energy into electricity.

The factory is cooled by evaporative cooling, which increases air flow throughout the factory and reduces air temperature by 2-3° only, but combined with the shading, the roofs and the surrounding trees provides a comfortable working environment. An indoor temperature of 27° to 29.5°C (compared with 25° to 26°C in an average factory) is maintained, while consuming only 25 percent of the cooling energy of an average factory.

The rooftop photovoltaic system with output of 25.6 kilowatts covers ten percent of the plant's power needs. For the remaining energy requirement, an agreement was made with the Ceylon Electricity Board so that power can be bought from the Association of Small Hydros to secure a renewable energy source.

MATERIALS
To reduce the embodied energy in the building, the main walls are made of compressed stabilized-earthblock manufactured forty kilometers from the site. The machine-molded blocks are made of local soil, sand, and locally manufactured cement. The large size of the blocks minimizes mortar joints. The walls require no plaster finish; they are simply sealed with varnish on the interior and exterior.

Roofing is zinc-aluminum imported from Australia. Windows use imported plate glass and aluminum frames. The building is framed in locally made concrete and steel manufactured from imported billets. Floor finishes include polished concrete tile, rendered and cut concrete, tile, and wood.

Bamboo is used for window blinds and various forms of sunscreen. Non-hazardous finishes and materials are used throughout the building, ensuring good indoor air quality, which is enhanced by high air-exchange rates.

For the structural system supporting spans of nearly 6.0m, a steel structure was selected considering the reusability or the recycle potential of steel. The sub-structure consists of galvanized steel piles in order to ensure adequate life span for the structure.

The floor deck consists of 25mm timber planks (from identified renewable supplies) connected with tongue and groove joints in order to ensure adequate load distribution and damping of vibrations that may be induced due to operation of various machinery. These are supported on a system of secondary beams located at 750 mm intervals. These secondary beams are supported by main beams spanning between columns. This arrangement is used for elevated ground floor and the first floor in the wings of factory, as well as the main wing and the walkways. This arrangement allows the completion of the building without altering the existing ground profile and hence ensuring minimum disturbance to existing storm flow characteristics and ground water recharge.

WATER
Every drop of water that enters the site is carefully managed. Consumption of potable water is about half that of comparable plants. Rainwater that falls on the cool roofs is collected and used for flushing toilets. The storage tanks and toilets are gravity fed, eliminating the need for pumps. When the tanks run dry during a drought, water is sourced from the park's system. When the tanks become full after prolonged rain, the over flow is piped underground into the pond. Rain patterns are such that rainwater covers ninety percent of the flushing needs. Rainwater that falls on the green roofs is collected, channeled through a gravel -and-sand filter, and discharged into the pond, which naturally recharges the groundwater. Over flow from the pond feeds into the Ma Oya River. Wastewater from all plumbing fixtures is treated on site in an anaerobic plant. The system uses very little power – relying primarily on gravity and using pumps only for the last stage. Water discharged from the treatment plant passes through an absorption-and-filtration bed, and the purified water is then fed into the retention pond.

The factory uses potable water only for cooking, washing, drinking (after filtration), for the evaporative cooling system, and as a backup for flushing toilets. Dual-flush toilets and low-flow plumbing fixtures minimize water consumption. The water comes from the Ma Oya River, which borders the park. It is purified and distributed by MAS Fabri c Park. The pl ant i s not connected to a muni ci pal sewer or water di stri buti on system. No water i s used i n producti on.

All roads, walks, and terraces on the site are paved with cement-stabilized earth instead of sealed pavement . The porous surface reduces runoff and helps recharge the ground- water. Paving covers about ten percent of the site. About 400 trees were planted, doubling the number on the site.

LEED
The project achieved LEED Platinum rating through achievement of all of the prerequisites and the following 54 credits:

Sustainable Sites
1 Credit - SS1: Site Selection
1 Credit - SS2: Development Density & Community Connectivity
1 Credit - SS4.1: Alternative Transportation: Public Transportation Access
1 Credit - SS4.2: Alternative Transportation: Bicycle Storage & Changing Rooms
1 Credit - SS4.3: Alternative Transportation: Low-Emitting & Fuel Efficient Vehicles
1 Credit - SS4.4: Alternative Transportation: Parking Capacity
1 Credit - SS5.1: Site Development: Protect or Restore Habitat
1 Credit - SS5.2: Site Development: Maximize Open Space
1 Credit - SS6.1: Stormwater Management: Quantity Control
1 Credit - SS6.2: Stormwater Management: Quality Control
1 Credit – SS7.1: Heat Island Effect: Non-Roof
1 Credit – SS7.2: Heat Island Effect: Roof
1 Credit –SS8: Light Pollution Reduction

Water Efficiency
2 Credits – WE1.1-1.2: Water Efficient Landscaping
1 Credit – WE2: Innovative Wastewater Treatments
2 Credits – WE3.1-3.2: Water Use Reduction

Energy & Atmosphere
10 Credits – EA1: Optimize Energy Performance
2 Credits – EA2: Onsite Renewable Energy
1 Credit – EA3: Enhanced Commissioning
1 Credit – EA4: Enhanced Refrigerant Management
1 Credit – EA5: Measurement & Verification
1 Credit – EA6: Green Power

Materials & Resources
2 Credits – MR2: Construction Waste Management
2 Credits – MR5: Regional Materials

Indoor Environmental Quality
1 Credit – EQ1: Outdoor Air Delivery Monitoring
1 Credit – EQ2: Increased Ventilation
1 Credit – EQ3.1: Construction IAQ Management Plan: During Construction
1 Credit – EQ4.1: Low-Emitting Materials: Adhesives & Sealants
1 Credit – EQ4.2: Low-Emitting Materials: Paints & Coatings
1 Credit – EQ6.1: Controllability of Systems: Lighting
1 Credit – EQ6.2: Controllability of Systems: Thermal Comfort
1 Credit – EQ7.1: Thermal Comfort: Design
1 Credit – EQ7.1: Thermal Comfort: Verification
1 Credit – EQ8.1: Daylighting & Views: Daylight 75% of Spaces
1 Credit – EQ8.2: Daylighting & Views: Views for 90% of Spaces

Innovation & Design Process
1 Credit – ID1.1: Innovation in Design: Increasing open space by 10% more than the requirement for EQ8.2
1 Credit – ID1.1: Innovation in Design: Meeting 75% threshold for Protect/Restore Habitat (credit SS5.1)
1 Credit – ID1.1: Innovation in Design: Treating 100% of wastewater to tertiary standards
1 Credit – ID1.1: Innovation in Design: Water Use Reduction of 40% (10% more than credit WE3

MATERIALS:
Structure: Concrete frame
Walls: Cement stabilised earth blocks made at site;
Random Rubble Masonry; Lime plaster
Roof: Steel sheet roof with a unique low-albedo coating;
Glass Wool insulation

DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT TEAM

Rohinton Emmanuel - Architecture and Conceptual Framework

Rohinton Emmanuel is a Reader in Sustainable Design and Construction at the Glasgow Caledonian University, where he also leads a subject group in the same area as well as a Research Group on Sustainable Urban Environment. As an Architect with urban design interests, he contributed to the inquiry of urban climate change in warm regions and has taught and consulted on climate and environment sensitive design, building and urban sustainability and its assessment, building energy efficiency, thermal comfort and low carbon built environment. Rohinton is the Secretary of the largest international group of urban climate researchers, the International Association for Urban Climate and is a member of the Expert Team on Urban and Building Climatology (ET 4.4) of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) as well as the CIB Working Group (W108) on “Buildings and Climate Change.” He has also worked as a green building consultant (LEED certification) and has authored over 75 research papers in these areas, as well as textbooks such as An Urban Approach to Climate Sensitive Design: Strategies for the Tropics (Taylor & Francis, London, 2005); Carbon Management in the Built Environment (Routledge, London, 2012).

• General manager: Ushaan Abeywickrama, MAS Intimates, Thurulie ushaana@masholdings.com
• Team leader: Vidhura Ralapanawe, MAS Intimates, vidhurar@masholdings.com
• Architecture: Sanjeewa Lokuliyana, dslokuliyana@yahoo.com
• Architecture and conceptual framework: Professor Rohinton Emmanuel, University of Moratuwa, Rohinton. Emmanuel@gcal.ac.uk
• Civil engineering: Professor Thishan Jayasinghe, University of Moratuwa, thishan@civil.mrt.ac.lk
• Building materials: Dr. Chintha Jayasinghe, University of Moratuwa, chintha@civil.mrt.ac.lk
• Energy and cooling system: Professor Rahula Attalage, University of Moratuwa, rattalage@hotmail.com
• Chemical engineering: Professor Ajith de Alwis, University of Moratuwa, ajith@cheng.mrt.ac.lk
• Ecology: Professor B.N.P. Sinhakumara, University of Sri Jayawardenapura, sinha@eureka.lk and Nalinda Peiris, Peoples Institute for Sustainable Development, 69/17C, Templars Road, Mount Lavinia singha@eureka.lk
• Project manager: Akash Hettiarachchi, MAS Intimates Thurulie, for construction akasha@masholdings.com
• General contractor: Maga Engineering (Pte) Ltd, 200, Nawala Road, Colombo 05, www.maga.lk
• Electrical engineering and lighting: Illukkumbura Automation (Pvt) Ltd, 23, Deal Place “A”, Colombo 03, iluko@sltnet .lk
• Interiors: Westgate International (Pvt) Ltd, 71, Sri Saranankara Road, Dehiwala www.westgateinteriors.net
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